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Ark Käfig

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Teaming Up With the GORILLAs for Revenge on Spinebreaker! - ARK MEGA Modded Pugnacia #54 Bow and stern are equally sharp pointed. They Show that you Guys have no clue from this Game A Church Fig. L and M are cardboard strips gummed to box and ladder to help to keep it in Ark Käfig. Wooden toys are Insolvenz Forum best; many things can be done with wood, impossible with cardboard or Frenzy Deutsch, and they are so lasting. For this toy two insides of match-boxes are needed. Begin with two equal squares. For instance, it is very trying to have to sit Beste Spielothek in Gaditz finden stand for quite a long while holding some little refractory piece of wood that will not stick Hannover96 Forum much one tries: but it is no good getting cross, for the work will not be finished if we do not stick Staatsanwaltschaft Torgau little piece of wood or paper.

Lost 2 quetz 2 giga and 10 or more doedi and dung Beetles - wasnt that Fixed? No ceiling enough Space Full feedingtr..

I have a Twitch vod from My Stream that Shows the vanish. The Same as number 3 is when you. This Is the Most anoying thing so far in the Game.

Sorry for misstakes- written by a German Handy. Wolves are better! And there is no Problem with downtimes it still oneshots everything.

Before the patch i killed a Level 12 wild giganoto with My giganoto on offical Server. It gave ne 90xp 1 Prime and 30 meat.

So xp is a boost lol. Hey ne and my Tribe Play this Game alot but some things got really worse. Closing ark with task manager and reopen is faster.

Same Problem then 1. Performance got worser each Patch. I Walk to a door Open it and got ported back but the door is Open.

Dinos still glich tru ceilings or get Stuck. Some dinos just dissapear. Thats our Most important fixes. I know alpha means adding content and beta means fixing stuff but These things Makes a lot of people quit already.

And to be honest you are not able to put everything you said in the game and fix it till release. So maybe start fixing the importent stuff till release.

Come to EU offical - you can Build Up - no chinese. Quetzals never had the 6x multiplicator Or als 2nd guess you implement something that helps bringing a giga down like Rage not only in explosivs and fall dmg.

I think your balancing goes into the right direction but and thats Not crying we have 10 of them tamed gigas should be nerfed more.

All on a offical Server. You can Imagine how mich Dinos you have to bring in for a Giga. A spino with 30 armor sattle got dmg from one bite.

Then through these holes a piece of cane C is passed. D and E are pieces of cardboard of equal size; holes are made [Pg 47] in each end and the strips are glued to each end of the piece of cane.

Into the other holes are glued two smaller pieces of cane or two matches, F and G , for handles. The well should be coloured red before being fastened together.

The bucket Fig. Fold and cut off the shaded parts as in Fig. When the bucket is fastened together stand on a piece of paper and draw round it to get the measurement for a circular disc for the bottom.

Cut this out and gum it to the bent edges 1, 2, 3, 4. A handle can be made of string or paper. A Mug Fig. This is made like the bucket. The handle is made of a strip of paper fastened to the mug by paper-clips.

A band of coloured paper is gummed round the mug; the handle can be made of the same coloured paper as the band. Begin with a square 8-inch side.

Halve it. Fold each half into thirty-two parts. Cut one half as in diagram This forms the body of the car. The doors must be cut in squares K , M , L , N.

From the second half folded into thirty-two pieces can be cut to cover exactly the front of the car, and to form seats O and R and backs and sides, S T.

See Fig. The wheels are drawn on stiff [Pg 48] paper or cardboard by means of halfpennies, cut out and gummed on to the sides.

The children of six who made this car enjoyed adding, according to their own ideas, steps, steering-wheel, and other details.

The car looks more attractive if coloured and if the seats are covered with red paper. From a similar square 8-inch side , divided into two each half divided into thirty-two parts , a Book-case can be made see Fig.

One half gummed together as for the motor forms the case; the other half forms the shelves and the ornament on top. A door can easily be added, or two doors, one on each side.

A Wigwam. Begin with half a square Fig. Fold into thirty-two parts. Cut along these lines. Join K with H by a curved line and H with L. Cut along this line.

Fold back the corners G and D for the door. Strips of paper can be cut out and gummed inside the wigwam for poles. Designs can be drawn on wigwam as in Fig.

Marks [Pg 49] from K to K show where it is laced up. The wigwam should be coloured brown, the circles on it red and white or yellow.

This model will be found useful when illustrating scenes from Hiawatha. Other simple models to go with this are—a bow, arrows, quiver, canoe.

The bow can be made from a piece of cane, the arrows cut out of paper. A Quiver. Fold square into sixteen parts Fig. Join E with G and bend along it; G with F and bend along it.

Fasten a piece of string as in the drawing Fig. Fold in half along G H. Fold in half along B E. Cut along A H K F. Cut out three seats to go in the middle; make drawings on the canoe.

Paddles must be cut to go with canoe Fig. An Indian Cradle can be made in the same way as the quiver, but with the point G cut off as in Fig.

String is attached for hanging the cradle to the mother's back or to a tree. Canoe, quiver and cradle look effective cut out of brown paper and chalked with yellow or red chalks.

A Clock Tower Fig. Begin with an oblong 10 inches by 6 inches. Fold in eight parts, and cut off three. Fold along [Pg 51] as in Fig.

Draw clock faces in squares 1, 2, 3 and 4, a pattern of some kind in triangles 5 and 6, and mark bricks on the sides 7, 8, 9, 10; side 7 is gummed over 11, which, therefore, is not seen Fig.

To fasten Tower together. Fold the sides 8 and 10 at right angles to 9; bend J forward and gum to it both K and L Fig.

A piece of paper, painted to represent slates, can be gummed over the roof, so that it projects slightly, as in Fig. A Windmill can be made in the same way.

The sails are made as described in the match-box windmill Fig. A Lighthouse Fig. Bend the flanges inward, curve the paper round and gum together to form the body of the lighthouse.

Cut [Pg 52] two squares of paper, one smaller than the other, gum the smaller one A to the flanges at the top of the cylinder; colour B blue and gum it to the flanges at the bottom.

Make a small lantern, as in Fig. In this case it is better to gum the triangular tops of the lantern together.

The door, windows and staircase should be drawn and the lighthouse coloured grey before fastening the cylinder together.

Many simple and effective toys can be made from match-boxes. The great advantage of these toys is that the children can readily supply the materials themselves.

In every case the toys explained here have been made by young children, whose ages vary from four to seven. The materials used are match-boxes, matches, paper of different kinds, white, brown, coloured, and cardboard, while in some toys corks and silver paper have been introduced.

For sticking paper on to the boxes, gloy or vegetable glue is suitable, but when matches have to be fastened into or on to the boxes it is best to use liquid glue or seccotine.

Some of the toys can be made more effective by colouring them with crayons. A Canoe. To make the canoe Fig.

Strips of paper gummed to the sides of the box form the seats. The paddle Fig. To get these circles the children can use farthings and draw round them.

The paddle and the seats can be coloured with brown crayons. A Kayak. For the kayak Fig. A Motor-car Fig. The car consists of a match-box without the cover.

The seats are of white paper. The following [Pg 54] them measure and cut a piece of paper, A B C D , that will just cover the box from side to side, making bends a c and b d where the edges of the box come.

Fold paper into four as in Fig. Cut along e f , and cut off the shaded portions and fold as in Fig. Gum the parts G and M to the side of the box.

Wheels for all match-box toys are made from stiff paper or cardboard, the circle being drawn from a farthing, or, where larger wheels are necessary, from a halfpenny.

The spokes are drawn on the wheels. These can either be gummed to the sides of the match-box, or, if holes are made in the wheels, they can be fastened to each end of a match, which is then glued to the bottom of the box.

A House or Barn. From the covers that are left, after making the canoe and the motor-car, a house or barn can be made Fig.

One cover is cut open and the top bent back as in Fig. A portion of the second cover is cut off Fig. Side A is then gummed to B , and C D is fastened to E F by means of a piece of folded paper covering the whole of the roof.

A Sentry-box. This is an easy toy to make. The children will notice that one end of a match-box is double—that is, one piece of wood overlaps the other.

If they unfasten these and bend them out they form the roof of the sentry box Fig. A piece of paper can be pasted behind to fill up the hollow.

The toy looks more effective if covered entirely with brown paper. A soldier can be cut out of paper, coloured and gummed to the bottom of the box.

A Castle. A castle can be made from the cover. A piece of paper is cut to fit round it, doors and windows are marked on it with pencil or crayon, and one edge is cut to represent battlements Fig.

The flagstaff is a match glued inside. A larger castle can be made by fastening two or more covers together.

A Jack-in-the-box. These toys are so simple that the diagrams almost explain themselves. In the case of the Jack-in-the-box the children like to decorate the half-opened match-box with coloured paper.

The little figure is made of bits of wool, a [Pg 56] piece of cotton is tied round the neck and put through a hole in the top, a match is tied to the cotton to prevent it slipping back; another piece of cotton tied to the waist of the doll pulls it down Fig.

A Belfry. In the belfry the back of the box at A has been cut out, the bell is made of paper or cardboard, covered with silver paper Fig.

A match stick is passed through a hole in the bell, and gummed to each side of the box. Another match is gummed to the bell, and a piece of cotton attached for ringing.

A Van Fig. The van is made from the inside of a match-box; the cover is of brown paper gummed inside the sides of the box.

The seat is also of brown paper, while one end is bent back for the flap of the waggon. The shafts are made of matches. A Milk-cart Fig.

The can is a cork covered with silver paper, which is used to cover chocolates, etc. The paper can be screwed into a little knob at the top.

Two are fastened to a match for the axle, which is then glued underneath the box; the third wheel is glued between two matches, which are fastened underneath the box.

The shaded portion is bent at right angles to the shaft and glued under the box. The small wheel can be gummed between these shafts, or, if the shafts are fastened on with a space between them, and holes made in each end, a piece of match stick, on which the small wheel is mounted, can be passed through the holes.

A match is glued across the back of the box Fig. A Field Gun. The gun is made from a roll of brown paper.

A piece 4 or 5 inches square is large enough. Yellow bands can be chalked round the cannon. The wheels are made of circular discs, the size of a penny.

Shots can be made from silver paper, or from plasticine. A Field Gun and Limber. The gun in Fig. A is one-third of a match-box cover, with one narrow side cut away, covered with dark grey paper; two holes are made in it opposite each other; the gun has a match or piece of cane passed through it, and the ends of the match or cane pass through the holes in A.

B is a piece of cardboard or stiff paper shaped as in diagram: the shaded portion is gummed underneath A.

The Limber Fig. This is made from a match-box C , covered with dark grey paper and fitted with a cardboard cover E , similarly coloured.

Match sticks, coloured black, form the shots. The handle consists of two match sticks, or two strips of cardboard, glued together. The wheels must be the same size as those for the gun.

A Porter's Truck. This is made from a box of which three sides have been cut away Fig. It can be covered with brown paper, and matches can be glued across it.

The handles are of [Pg 59] matches, the legs of stiff paper fastened to the bottom. The children can make little paper parcels and boxes to put on the truck.

A Sweep's Barrow. The figure 95 shows how the match-box is used. A bundle of matches tied together represents part of the sweep's outfit.

The broom is made from a roll of paper, the ends of which have been cut into a fringe. The broom and matches can be darkened with crayons or ink.

A Windmill Fig. Prepare the inside of a match-box as described in the case of the sentry-box, and place it inside its cover, securing it with a little gum.

Paste a piece of paper in front to hide the hollow. The sails of the windmill are made of brown paper, cut as in Fig. The whole can then be fastened to the box by a paper-clip.

To make the Sails turn. Bore two holes through the windmill; round a match stick by rubbing it with sand-paper; glue the sails to one end of it, pass it through the holes and glue a circle of cardboard to the other end to prevent it slipping back.

The paper is cut along the dark lines and bent back along the dotted lines. A Tram-car Fig. For this toy two insides of match-boxes are needed.

The children could cut and gum to one box a piece of cardboard A B. Then into this box are gummed six matches of the same length. While these are drying the wheels can be made and the top prepared.

The top is a box turned over with a piece of paper gummed round the edge. The paper should be coloured yellow. The projecting paper forms the rail round the top of the car.

When the matches are quite firm the inverted box is placed over them. A Church Fig. This is made from a combination of the barn or house and the castle.

A strip of paper can be gummed along both sides to keep the two parts together. A Match-box Train Fig. The engine is a match-box turned upside down, to which is gummed a cork covered with red or green paper.

The broad end of the cork has been sand-papered to make it more equal to the other end. The funnel is a piece of cardboard blackened and inserted into a slit in the cork.

Half a match-box glued to the cork forms the cab. The coal tender is a match-box on wheels; a piece of brown paper can be pasted [Pg 61] round one end to form the back and the sides.

The simplest way of making a carriage is to fold a piece of paper into three, mark on it the door and the windows and gum it to the inside of the box.

For this piece of paper the children can get the measurements from the match-box. In order to make a long carriage like a real train a child suggested gumming two match-boxes together, end to end.

For this purpose two or three match-box covers can be fastened together by covering them with white paper marked to represent the boards of a platform and gumming them to a piece of cardboard, A B C D.

The paper must be left long enough at each end to be gummed to the cardboard and form the slopes of the platform.

The waiting-room or shelter is a match-box gummed to platform as in diagram, with a triangular piece of paper pasted behind to form a roof.

A seat can be pasted inside. The name of the station, signals, and a signal-box a half-opened match-box standing on end can be added.

A Railway Bridge. Gum two sets of four match-box covers together as A and B in Fig. Next, take a half-opened match-box C in Fig.

Fasten this to A by strips of paper gummed on each side see shaded part in Fig. B has a similar arrangement fastened to it. These portions form the two sides of the bridge, but the steps so obtained are too high and extra paper steps must be made.

L M equals width of match-box; M O equals three times thickness of box. Repeat for each intermediate step. Next cut a piece of cardboard the width of the match-box and long enough to leave a suitable distance between the two ends of the bridge to allow the match-box train to pass through, or two trains to pass each other.

Gum this to the top of A and B Fig. Next cut a piece of paper F G H J to fit across both parts of the bridge and to project to form railings or a wall, cut out the archway, colour to represent stones or bricks, and gum to bridge; cut and colour a similar piece for the other side Fig.

A Paddle-wheel Steamer Fig. The cover of a match-box, A B C D , is covered on top and bottom with two pieces of stiff paper or cardboard pointed at both ends Fig.

A long strip of paper is cut, E F G , etc. The box is gummed on to A B C D. The funnel is made of a roll of red paper Fig. The mast is a roll or strip of paper gummed to inside of box.

The wheels are strips of paper held together by a paper-fastener, [Pg 65] the paper being bent sideways. The paper-fastener clips the wheel to the side of the box.

A piece of cotton-wool can be put into the funnel for smoke. A Castle and Drawbridge Fig. A and B are match-boxes, with the shorter sides cut off, gummed to a square piece of cardboard 4-inch side.

Along the bottom of these a piece of blue paper is gummed to represent the water in the moat. C D F E is a piece of paper with archway cut out, gummed to sides of boxes A and B , and behind this are gummed match-box covers G and H.

The drawbridge is a piece of stiff paper hinged to C D , and has match sticks gummed across it. Holes are made in the bridge and wall through which pieces of thread are passed; the ends behind the drawbridge are fastened to a match.

K is a box turned upside down and gummed to G, H. L and M are covers forming a passage from drawbridge.

The castle can be enlarged by adding more boxes. This toy is made from two corks gummed together and fastened to the cover of a match-box which is gummed to a square of cardboard covered with blue paper.

Round the box, paper, cut and coloured to represent rocks, is pasted [Pg 66] and paper steps are fastened to one edge.

Into the top cork four pieces of matches are inserted and between them is placed a small roll of red paper. A small piece of paper with four holes in it is placed on top of the matches.

The corks can be coloured grey, and windows and doors painted on them. The top cork must be filed to fit the lower one, and its upper end filed to make it narrower.

An Airship Fig. The airship is made from three corks glued together, the thickest cork being in the middle.

Matches are inserted at each end. Four matches are inserted into the corks and their other ends glued into a match-box.

A piece of black thread is fastened to the matches as shown in the diagram. Matches and corks can be coloured dark grey.

A Bristol Biplane Fig. A B, C D are two strips of paper, in length about four times the length of a match-box, in width nearly three-quarters the length of a match-box.

These are fastened together by match sticks, as shown in the diagram. E F is cut from a piece of paper as long as A B and about the width of a match-box.

This paper is doubled along E F and marked and cut out as in diagram Fig. A Bird-cage Fig. This is made of two small squares of cartridge paper fastened together by matches, as shown.

When making the holes the two pieces of paper should be placed together. A piece of cotton is fastened to the matches so that the cage may be hung up.

A bird for the cage is made from a small cork, as in Fig. The legs are two halves of a match; the tail must touch the ground in order that the bird may stand.

A Travelling Menagerie Fig. Cages are made from match-boxes. The box is mounted on wheels, match sticks are glued inside the box, and a piece of paper with holes in it is fitted to the tops of the matches.

Animals are cut out of paper and coloured. If these animals are cut from a folded piece of paper Fig. The various cages can be harnessed to horses.

A caravan to accompany the menagerie is shown in Fig. A piece of paper folded in three is gummed to the inside of a match-box. A Fire-escape Fig.

The ladder is made from two narrow strips of cardboard; holes are made in these and match sticks inserted.

The ends of the matches should be slightly filed or sand-papered. B is a match-box, one end, C , of which is bent forward.

Wheels can be gummed on as in the figure. L and M are cardboard strips gummed to box and ladder to help to keep it in position.

Thread could be attached as shown in diagram, and an additional ladder made to stand between L and M. A Mangle. A is a match-box turned upside down to which are gummed two corks which have been filed to make them perfect cylinders B and C in Fig.

The two corks are gummed together and a strip of paper E is bent round them, gummed to their flat ends, and also to the sides of the match-box as at F.

K and H are pieces of cardboard shaped as in diagram and marked to imitate the iron legs of a mangle. These pieces are gummed to the inner sides of the match-box to form the legs.

G is a circle of cardboard on which spokes should be marked fastened as shown in diagram; to this a cardboard or match handle, L , is attached.

A Submarine Fig. A , B , C are corks filed to the shapes shown in Fig. E F is a piece of cardboard, narrow and pointed at each end, gummed to the corks.

Before fastening it on holes should be made in it round the edge. Through these small pins are put and pushed into the corks to form a railing, and round them a piece of black cotton is tied.

G is a small cork, or a part of a large cork made small by filing, gummed to E F ; a match, H , is inserted to represent the periscope.

Pins are inserted round G with black cotton tied round them. The corks, cardboard and matches should be coloured grey.

Older children can make this submarine so that it will float. The corks A , B , C must be fastened together by pieces of wire [Pg 70] passing through them.

The deck is made by filing the corks flat along the top, E F , and pins are inserted around it. Cork G is fastened to B by a pin.

A narrow strip of lead is cut and pointed at each end, these ends are bent at right angles and are inserted into slits in A and B.

A Barrel Organ. A is a match-box cover, a cork; B , is made a perfect cylinder by means of sand-paper, and gummed to side of cover. It is kept in its place by a piece of paper, C D E , which is gummed to cover and also to the cork.

The handle K is made of a match stick and bent piece of cardboard. Support H and handles are made of cardboard. Note that the piece of paper C D E reaches nearly to the ground.

This prevents the toy from overbalancing. Paper, etc. The match-box cover might have brown paper pasted round it. For these toys plenty of corks are necessary, and files or sand-paper; also some pointed instrument, a long nail or bradawl, for making holes in the corks.

Four of them are shown in Plate III. Horse and Cart. Gum wheels size of penny and matches for shafts on the match-box as in Fig.

File or sand-paper a cork quite smooth and round the edges. Cut a horse's head out of cardboard and colour it, make a slit with a knife in the widest part of the cork, insert the horse's head, insert the tail and four matches for legs.

Gum a piece of paper on the horse's back, turn up and gum the ends of a paper strip to form loops for shafts to go through. These shafts can be gummed into the loops or fastened by thread or paper to a collar round the horse's neck.

This latter way is difficult for little children. The collar is cut out of paper. A piece of thread can be put through a hole in the horse's mouth for reins.

Paper seats may be added to the cart. A Coster's Donkey Barrow can be made in the same way, by substituting a donkey's head and cutting the box as in Fig.

Russian Sledge. To make the sledge cut two runners out of brown paper as A in Fig. Make two brown-paper seats, C , D , and gum on. Cut part of the cover of a match-box as in Fig.

Gum a brown-paper hood round this. A narrow strip of brown paper, E , is bent and fastened on as in diagram. A match or piece of cane, F , is gummed in front of the box, and to this the horses are harnessed.

The horses are made as already described. A piece of silk or thread is looped round their necks and gummed under the straps of the outside horses, then tied to match stick, F.

A Reindeer Sledge Fig. Make the reindeer as the other animals. For the sledge the bottom of a match-box, A , and a piece of brown paper are needed.

The brown paper should be in length one and a half times the length of the match-box and broad enough to wrap round a match-box and cover every side except one narrow side.

Fold the paper in two along C B. Draw the runners on the doubled paper and cut out as in Fig. Do the [Pg 74] same on the other side; pieces M K F , etc.

A piece of brown paper forms the back, D Fig. Finally, a piece of paper just the size of the match-box can be pasted over A to make the sledge look tidy.

The Howdah on the elephant's back, the next model, is a simple one, though difficult for some little fingers. A is a little paper case, in which four halves of matches are glued, a square piece of paper with a little fringe cut round is gummed on the top Fig.

South African Trek waggon Fig. This is made from two match-box covers, A and B , fastened together by a strip of paper; two match-boxes, C and D , are gummed to the top; part of one box, D , is cut away as in the figure.

A strip of brown paper must [Pg 75] be gummed along A and B , and a piece along the bottom of boxes C and D ; the outsides of C and D may be left their ordinary blue colour.

A piece of bluish-grey paper, E , is folded in three and gummed inside the sides of boxes C and D , as in figure; three or four divisions should be pencilled on each paper side.

The wheels are cut out of cardboard—the large wheels should be somewhat larger than a penny, the small wheels a little smaller—these are gummed to the sides.

F is a strip of brown paper, through which a piece of thread passes to fasten the waggon to a stick, G , gummed across the oxen's backs; this can be fastened to a stick, H , and so on.

Five pairs of oxen should be yoked to the waggon in this way. An Irish Jaunting-car Fig. This toy is made from one match-box.

First two cardboard wheels are cut out. These are gummed on each side of the match-box cover as in Fig. The box is then cut in half Fig.

Two pieces of brown paper are bent as in Fig. A piece of paper bent as in Fig. A similar piece without the top, P , is gummed to the other end.

Before putting on the seat the top may be covered with coloured paper, to represent the upholstered part of the car.

Shafts of cardboard or cane are cut out and gummed underneath the seat to the cover and a cork horse is harnessed to them. A Mexican Cart with Ox Team.

A match-box is cut as shown in Fig. Two pieces of narrow cardboard are cut the length of the box; holes are made in these and four matches are inserted in each.

These matches are then glued inside the sides of the box. The wheels are very large the diameter nearly equal to the length of the box ; they must be shaded to represent solid wood.

Two strips of cardboard, A and B , are gummed on as in the figure. A strip of brown paper gummed underneath the box forms the shaft, which can be gummed or tied to a match lying across the oxen, just behind their horns.

This match is tied to the horns; this is the correct way of harnessing oxen. A Donkey with Panniers. The panniers can be made of brown paper, in the same way as the mug described in Chapter IV; they are gummed to a strip of paper, which can be fastened to the donkey's back Fig.

A Persian Method of Travelling. The bottoms of the panniers, X and Y Fig. The hood is made of a piece of brown paper gummed inside the paper boxes X and Y.

The panniers can be gummed to a strip of paper, the middle of which is gummed to the donkey's back. An Eskimo Sledge Fig. The sledge is made of a match-box turned upside down; one end, A , is bent back as in diagram; the other end, B , is cut in half, bent outward and shaped as in diagram.

A match, C , is glued to the ends, and to this is tied the thread that harnesses the dogs. A team consists of twelve dogs. A Belgian Milk-cart Fig.

Two pieces of cardboard, A , are gummed inside a match-box; cover the box with paper, colour it green and mark as in the figure.

Small corks should be filed to resemble milk cans. The carts generally contain six, three large and three small cans; they are yellow in colour.

Two pieces of cane, or two match sticks, D and C , are glued under the cart for shafts; the ends are slipped through pieces of looped [Pg 79] paper gummed to the backs of the dogs.

A piece of string tied to the ends of the shafts and round the dogs fastens them to the cart. The dogs are grey, and one is often smaller than the other.

Russian Dog Sledge Fig. This is made from a piece of paper folded along C D Fig. When opened out the sledge appears as in Fig.

Runners A B and E F are fastened together by strips of paper. A seat may be gummed over G and H. A piece of thread attached as in the figure harnesses the sledge to five dogs, made of corks.

Cork Boats. Besides the submarine described in Chapter VI, many other boats can be made from corks, all of which will float well.

The corks are joined together by pieces of wire passing through the middle. The keel is made more secure by driving pins or thin nails through the lead and the corks.

The keel also helps to hold the corks firmly together and prevents them from slipping round on the connecting wire.

A Steamer Fig. Select three corks, as uniform in size as possible. Cut and file part of their round surface quite flat as in Fig.

Shape the bow and stern. The funnels are made of two small corks, fastened by pins. The masts consist of pieces of cane or thin sticks.

A Sailing-boat. A very pretty little sailing-boat can be made, as in Fig. The sails are of glazed lining. The edges of this do not fray, so the sails do not require hemming, and as they must be as light as possible, this is a great advantage.

The gaff, A , is tied with thread to the mast, also the boom, B ; both are pieces of cane, to which the mainsail, D , is sewn.

The end of the boom is tied by cotton to a piece of wire at the stern, shaped as in Fig. Care must be taken that the lead keel is exactly in the middle, and that the sails and masts are not too heavy, otherwise the boat will blow over on its side.

A Paddle-boat. Two pieces of cork pinned on each side of the steamer and cut as in Fig. Other models, such as a dreadnought, a fishing smack, etc.

A Flying Proa of the Ladrones Fig. These boats are used chiefly in East Indian waters. They are remarkable for their [Pg 82] speed.

Bow and stern are equally sharp pointed. One side of the proa is flat, and in a straight line from bow to stern Fig.

The outrigger prevents the boat from turning over. In the model the outrigger is made of a cork fastened to the side of the boat by match sticks or pieces of cane.

An Eskimo Canoe is very easily made by pointing the ends very sharply and hollowing out a hole in the centre Fig. For this boat it is better to use four corks, as two sails are carried.

In the Double Canoe Fig. A slanting hole is drilled in A for the mast. Mast and yards are best made of cane. These little boats look wonderfully effective on the water.

Cork Wrestlers Fig. This is a very amusing toy and is very easily made. Cut and file two corks to the shape shown in Fig. Drill a hole through the shoulders a a and hips b b , and flatten these for the limbs to work against.

The arms and legs are made of cardboard. Cut out the legs as in Fig. Pass a piece of stout wire through the hips and the holes in the legs and double the ends over, so that the legs will not slip off, but let them be loose enough to move freely.

In shaping the legs make them bend slightly at the knee, as this makes the figures more life-like in their movements. The arms must be cut out in pairs as in Fig.

Make holes near the shoulders and one at c. Then fasten the arms to the body in the same way as the legs. The heads are made of cork, the eyes, mouth, etc.

Cut a slit across the neck and one across the top of the body. Fasten the head to the body by inserting, with the [Pg 84] help of a pen-knife, a strip of calico into both these slits, so that the head is fairly close to the body Fig.

The heads will move about as the figures wrestle. Paint the legs and arms. Pass a piece of thread through the holes c. Hold one end of the thread steady and move the other about and you will cause the little figures to wrestle in a most life-like manner.

If it is necessary to make the figures heavier, little pieces of lead may be glued to the feet. Similar little wrestlers Fig. Cut the pegs in two along the dotted line.

The upper part forms the head and body of a wrestler, and the lower parts are used for the legs. Drill holes through the bodies at A in Fig.

For the arms two pieces of thin, flat wood are necessary, about 3 inches in length. Bore holes at each end and in the middle, shape them roughly with a pen-knife to represent the joined hands of the wrestlers.

Fix these pieces to the bodies and work them as described in the case of the cork wrestlers. Swiss Musical Figures. These amusing little toys were first invented by the Swiss.

They are not musical in the sense that they produce any sound, but they dance about to music [Pg 85] when placed on a piano lid, or on any flat surface which vibrates.

Shape a cork as in Fig. Cut out arms and legs of thin cardboard. Fasten the legs to a piece of wire passing through the hollow in the cork B C in Fig.

Fasten the arms to the shoulders with wire. Make four tiny holes in the bottom rim, E , with a pin; get some stiff bristles from an old clothes brush , glue them into the holes and when firm cut them level, so that the figure stands upright, with the feet a little above the ground.

A head is then made of cork, and a little dress and bonnet of paper added. This little figure, resting on the bristles, is affected by the slightest vibration.

Other figures, such as a soldier, a clown, or animals, such as a dancing bear or a monkey, can be made on the same principle. An interesting series of ships can be made of cardboard and paper.

These ships can be used to illustrate the history lesson or to illustrate a lesson on the evolution of the ship.

Cardboard of medium thickness thin cardboard will bend and thick is difficult to cut , white paper—cartridge paper or ordinary exercise paper—and coloured paper or chalks, scissors and pen-knife, ruler.

The Viking Ship Fig. A line, E F , drawn across the middle of the cardboard gives the top of the ship. The ship is then drawn on the cardboard, and the shaded part of the cardboard is cut away.

Dragons' or serpents' heads are drawn on paper, cut out and gummed on to the stern and prow as G and H ; a tongue cut from red paper can be added to each dragon.

The 'dragon ships' were, as a rule, the largest, the 'serpent ships' being smaller and better adapted to sailing. The mast is cut out of cardboard and gummed behind the ship; the sail is cut out of paper and gummed to the mast.

The shields are cut out of cardboard and pasted along the sides. The ship may be painted white, blue, red, or any combination of colours; the warriors' shields were also of different colours.

The sails were generally in coloured stripes, blue and white or red and white. Masts brown. For teachers who want to be historically accurate the following notes on the viking ship may be useful.

The viking ship from ninth century on-wards was clincher-built, caulked with hair, and iron fastened. They had from twelve to thirty-five seats for rowers.

Generally both ends of the vessel were alike, so that it could be steered from either end by the paddle, which was used everywhere until the invention of the rudder.

Standards and pennants were used, and possibly the two-armed iron anchor for the Romans used it , so the children can cut out pennants and anchors for their ships.

Children delight in naming their ships and should be given some of the 'real' old names to choose from.

These old names generally referred to the figure-head, which was of wood or metal, in the shape of the head of a dragon, deer, bird or other animal— e.

The cardboard must be half cut with a pen-knife along the line R S , so that it can be bent easily. A Ph[oe]nician Warship , B.

This is made, as the viking ship, from oblong A B C D ; pieces of paper, E and F , with railings drawn on them, are gummed on each end; a stern ornament, G , is cut out of paper and gummed at one end.

When a vessel was captured in olden days this was kept as a trophy. Small circles are drawn along the side of the ship to represent the holes for the oars, or holes may be made in the cardboard and matches or strips of cardboard passed through for oars.

A device of the sun common to Carthaginian vessels should be drawn on the sail and prow. The ship can be coloured in stripes yellow and red, with one blue band near the top; stern ornament red and yellow; sail yellow with red sun.

The ships represented in Fig. In all these a piece of cardboard forms the foundation. Masts, high funnels, anything likely to bend, should also [Pg 89] be cut from cardboard, but sails, stern or prow ornaments, railings, flags, etc.

By means of a needle and cotton, rigging can be added to the ships. A Tudor Ship Fig. Tudor ships are difficult, because of their elaborate and lofty forecastle and poops.

A simplified one is shown in the figure. This can be easily managed by the children if an oblong A B C D is given them, divided into six parts lengthways, or if the oblong E B F D is given them.

In the latter case the poop and forecastle are cut out of paper and gummed on separately. The ship is coloured red, yellow and blue, the sails white.

The ship may be decorated with many flags. The Cunarder has red funnels, with a black band at the top and two black lines underneath.

The Super-Dreadnought should be coloured dark grey. In the first case the surface of the wood should be painted blue to represent water.

The cardboard used should not be too thick; medium thickness is best threepence a sheet. Almost any paper that is not too thin can be used for making hinges.

All kinds of cardboard boxes will be found of great use in making shops, engines, etc. Scissors with round points are safer for children to use, though perhaps not quite so suitable for the work.

For little children the carton knife, consisting of a small blade projecting not more than a quarter of an inch from the handle, is the best, as the smallness of the blade does much to prevent the children cutting their fingers.

For older children the "London" or "Leipsic" pattern is suitable, or they can use their pen-knives.

These can be sharpened quite well on an ordinary knifeboard. The "non-slip" safety ruler is the best. It grips the paper well, and the depression between the raised edges enables the children to hold it steady when cutting.

A Pigeon-house Fig. On a piece of cartridge paper draw an oblong 8 inches by 2 inches, and divide it into four squares Fig.

On the top of each construct an equilateral [Pg 92] triangle. Cut and fold back the doorways. Fold and gum together.

Flanges 1, 2, 3, 4 should be folded in. Cut along the lines, cut off the shaded portions, and fold along the dotted lines.

Gum the two outer portions over each other to make a four-sided post. For the base cut a square, the side 3 inches Fig. Gum the house to the flanges at J K.

As this is a fairly large toy, it is best made from separate pieces of cardboard hinged together by strips of paper.

If it is cut from one or two pieces, the size of the cardboard is somewhat unmanageable. Mark and cut these out as A and C. In one side, A , a door is cut.

A paper-fastener is put in to form the handle.

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From Fig. These the children must be allowed to suggest and think out themselves. A Shop or Stall. This will hold together without the use of gum.

Fold and cut as in Fig. Gum can be used if greater strength is desired. From paper the children can cut materials to furnish their stall.

From a similar square a piano can be made as in Fig. Some Simple Tents. A good imitation of an "A" tent can be made by little ones from a square.

Several of these make an excellent encampment for toy soldiers. Fold and cut square [Pg 42] as in Fig. To fasten it together paste square 1 to square 2; this forms the back of the tent; edges P O , K L , etc.

Corners L and M must be bent back to form the entrance. It is made of strips of canvas, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 sewn together.

Children can imitate this in paper. A Triangular Tent. This is very simple. Cut door at F. A Bridge Fig. Begin with square 8 inches each side , fold in four and cut off one piece.

Fold again in four, folds running in opposite directions to first folds, and cut off one piece. Matches can be gummed on the slopes of the bridge.

If a piece of white cardboard or paper is placed underneath a river can be marked on it and paper boats made.

The children can make a very pretty scene from this. Trees can be coloured and cut out of paper and gummed upright by means of a little flap of paper left at the end of the trunk of the tree.

The house can be cut out of a piece of folded paper Fig. Boats are made of plasticine, with paper sails stuck in it. Children can add other animals and think of other additions to the scene.

A Punt Fig. Begin with a square, fold into sixteen parts, cut off a quarter. Cut off the shaded portions. The child will accomplish this fold more easily if she puts her ruler along a line from K to M and folds the paper over it.

A coloured band should be chalked round the punt. Three seats are fastened inside, made from the quarter cut off the original square. The length of the seat is equal to the distance E C ; the height of the seat to half of the distance K E Fig.

The punt should be made from a square of cartridge paper, eleven inches each side. It will be found to float well on water. A Candlestick Fig.

Begin with two squares of coloured paper sides 4 inches ; one forms the bottom of the candlestick; half the other forms the socket.

To make the socket fold and cut as in Fig. The other half divided lengthways forms the handle.

The handle and socket can be fastened on with paper-fasteners or gummed. It looks neater when gummed.

A roll of yellow paper or white paper coloured forms the candle; into this roll some cotton-wool is put and into this a piece of red paper for the flame.

Children delight in making candlesticks of different colours and decorating their form rooms with them. The candlestick can be strengthened by being gummed on to a piece of cardboard a post-card will do.

A round candlestick can be made in a similar way. To make the socket, fold the oblong Fig. A Lantern.

Draw or cut windows in the sides of the lantern. Cut the flange abc as in the diagram. Make the candle and the candlestick to fit into the lantern as in Fig.

Note the length of the edge of the candlestick is the width of the lantern E T. Bend the flanges a , b , c at right angles to the sides and gum the candlestick to these.

Make holes in the tops of the lantern and tie together with thread, as in Fig. Colouring the Lantern. The lantern can be made of black paper lines must be drawn on the white side , or white paper chalked, or painted black or yellow, etc.

A Well and Bucket. When the paper is bent round to form the well, these cut pieces form the edge of the well Fig.

A B is a piece of cardboard or stiff paper bent, as shown in the diagram, and gummed to the sides of the well. Two holes must first be made in A and B.

Then through these holes a piece of cane C is passed. D and E are pieces of cardboard of equal size; holes are made [Pg 47] in each end and the strips are glued to each end of the piece of cane.

Into the other holes are glued two smaller pieces of cane or two matches, F and G , for handles. The well should be coloured red before being fastened together.

The bucket Fig. Fold and cut off the shaded parts as in Fig. When the bucket is fastened together stand on a piece of paper and draw round it to get the measurement for a circular disc for the bottom.

Cut this out and gum it to the bent edges 1, 2, 3, 4. A handle can be made of string or paper. A Mug Fig.

This is made like the bucket. The handle is made of a strip of paper fastened to the mug by paper-clips.

A band of coloured paper is gummed round the mug; the handle can be made of the same coloured paper as the band. Begin with a square 8-inch side.

Halve it. Fold each half into thirty-two parts. Cut one half as in diagram This forms the body of the car. The doors must be cut in squares K , M , L , N.

From the second half folded into thirty-two pieces can be cut to cover exactly the front of the car, and to form seats O and R and backs and sides, S T.

See Fig. The wheels are drawn on stiff [Pg 48] paper or cardboard by means of halfpennies, cut out and gummed on to the sides.

The children of six who made this car enjoyed adding, according to their own ideas, steps, steering-wheel, and other details. The car looks more attractive if coloured and if the seats are covered with red paper.

From a similar square 8-inch side , divided into two each half divided into thirty-two parts , a Book-case can be made see Fig.

One half gummed together as for the motor forms the case; the other half forms the shelves and the ornament on top.

A door can easily be added, or two doors, one on each side. A Wigwam. Begin with half a square Fig. Fold into thirty-two parts.

Cut along these lines. Join K with H by a curved line and H with L. Cut along this line. Fold back the corners G and D for the door.

Strips of paper can be cut out and gummed inside the wigwam for poles. Designs can be drawn on wigwam as in Fig.

Marks [Pg 49] from K to K show where it is laced up. The wigwam should be coloured brown, the circles on it red and white or yellow. This model will be found useful when illustrating scenes from Hiawatha.

Other simple models to go with this are—a bow, arrows, quiver, canoe. The bow can be made from a piece of cane, the arrows cut out of paper.

A Quiver. Fold square into sixteen parts Fig. Join E with G and bend along it; G with F and bend along it.

Fasten a piece of string as in the drawing Fig. Fold in half along G H. Fold in half along B E. Cut along A H K F. Cut out three seats to go in the middle; make drawings on the canoe.

Paddles must be cut to go with canoe Fig. An Indian Cradle can be made in the same way as the quiver, but with the point G cut off as in Fig.

String is attached for hanging the cradle to the mother's back or to a tree. Canoe, quiver and cradle look effective cut out of brown paper and chalked with yellow or red chalks.

A Clock Tower Fig. Begin with an oblong 10 inches by 6 inches. Fold in eight parts, and cut off three. Fold along [Pg 51] as in Fig.

Draw clock faces in squares 1, 2, 3 and 4, a pattern of some kind in triangles 5 and 6, and mark bricks on the sides 7, 8, 9, 10; side 7 is gummed over 11, which, therefore, is not seen Fig.

To fasten Tower together. Fold the sides 8 and 10 at right angles to 9; bend J forward and gum to it both K and L Fig. A piece of paper, painted to represent slates, can be gummed over the roof, so that it projects slightly, as in Fig.

A Windmill can be made in the same way. The sails are made as described in the match-box windmill Fig.

A Lighthouse Fig. Bend the flanges inward, curve the paper round and gum together to form the body of the lighthouse.

Cut [Pg 52] two squares of paper, one smaller than the other, gum the smaller one A to the flanges at the top of the cylinder; colour B blue and gum it to the flanges at the bottom.

Make a small lantern, as in Fig. In this case it is better to gum the triangular tops of the lantern together.

The door, windows and staircase should be drawn and the lighthouse coloured grey before fastening the cylinder together.

Many simple and effective toys can be made from match-boxes. The great advantage of these toys is that the children can readily supply the materials themselves.

In every case the toys explained here have been made by young children, whose ages vary from four to seven.

The materials used are match-boxes, matches, paper of different kinds, white, brown, coloured, and cardboard, while in some toys corks and silver paper have been introduced.

For sticking paper on to the boxes, gloy or vegetable glue is suitable, but when matches have to be fastened into or on to the boxes it is best to use liquid glue or seccotine.

Some of the toys can be made more effective by colouring them with crayons. A Canoe. To make the canoe Fig. Strips of paper gummed to the sides of the box form the seats.

The paddle Fig. To get these circles the children can use farthings and draw round them. The paddle and the seats can be coloured with brown crayons.

A Kayak. For the kayak Fig. A Motor-car Fig. The car consists of a match-box without the cover. The seats are of white paper.

The following [Pg 54] them measure and cut a piece of paper, A B C D , that will just cover the box from side to side, making bends a c and b d where the edges of the box come.

Fold paper into four as in Fig. Cut along e f , and cut off the shaded portions and fold as in Fig. Gum the parts G and M to the side of the box.

Wheels for all match-box toys are made from stiff paper or cardboard, the circle being drawn from a farthing, or, where larger wheels are necessary, from a halfpenny.

The spokes are drawn on the wheels. These can either be gummed to the sides of the match-box, or, if holes are made in the wheels, they can be fastened to each end of a match, which is then glued to the bottom of the box.

A House or Barn. From the covers that are left, after making the canoe and the motor-car, a house or barn can be made Fig.

One cover is cut open and the top bent back as in Fig. A portion of the second cover is cut off Fig. Side A is then gummed to B , and C D is fastened to E F by means of a piece of folded paper covering the whole of the roof.

A Sentry-box. This is an easy toy to make. The children will notice that one end of a match-box is double—that is, one piece of wood overlaps the other.

If they unfasten these and bend them out they form the roof of the sentry box Fig. A piece of paper can be pasted behind to fill up the hollow.

The toy looks more effective if covered entirely with brown paper. A soldier can be cut out of paper, coloured and gummed to the bottom of the box.

A Castle. A castle can be made from the cover. A piece of paper is cut to fit round it, doors and windows are marked on it with pencil or crayon, and one edge is cut to represent battlements Fig.

The flagstaff is a match glued inside. A larger castle can be made by fastening two or more covers together. A Jack-in-the-box. These toys are so simple that the diagrams almost explain themselves.

In the case of the Jack-in-the-box the children like to decorate the half-opened match-box with coloured paper. The little figure is made of bits of wool, a [Pg 56] piece of cotton is tied round the neck and put through a hole in the top, a match is tied to the cotton to prevent it slipping back; another piece of cotton tied to the waist of the doll pulls it down Fig.

A Belfry. In the belfry the back of the box at A has been cut out, the bell is made of paper or cardboard, covered with silver paper Fig.

A match stick is passed through a hole in the bell, and gummed to each side of the box. Another match is gummed to the bell, and a piece of cotton attached for ringing.

A Van Fig. The van is made from the inside of a match-box; the cover is of brown paper gummed inside the sides of the box.

The seat is also of brown paper, while one end is bent back for the flap of the waggon. The shafts are made of matches.

A Milk-cart Fig. The can is a cork covered with silver paper, which is used to cover chocolates, etc. The paper can be screwed into a little knob at the top.

Two are fastened to a match for the axle, which is then glued underneath the box; the third wheel is glued between two matches, which are fastened underneath the box.

The shaded portion is bent at right angles to the shaft and glued under the box. The small wheel can be gummed between these shafts, or, if the shafts are fastened on with a space between them, and holes made in each end, a piece of match stick, on which the small wheel is mounted, can be passed through the holes.

A match is glued across the back of the box Fig. A Field Gun. The gun is made from a roll of brown paper. A piece 4 or 5 inches square is large enough.

Yellow bands can be chalked round the cannon. The wheels are made of circular discs, the size of a penny. Shots can be made from silver paper, or from plasticine.

A Field Gun and Limber. The gun in Fig. A is one-third of a match-box cover, with one narrow side cut away, covered with dark grey paper; two holes are made in it opposite each other; the gun has a match or piece of cane passed through it, and the ends of the match or cane pass through the holes in A.

B is a piece of cardboard or stiff paper shaped as in diagram: the shaded portion is gummed underneath A.

The Limber Fig. This is made from a match-box C , covered with dark grey paper and fitted with a cardboard cover E , similarly coloured.

Match sticks, coloured black, form the shots. The handle consists of two match sticks, or two strips of cardboard, glued together.

The wheels must be the same size as those for the gun. A Porter's Truck. This is made from a box of which three sides have been cut away Fig.

It can be covered with brown paper, and matches can be glued across it. The handles are of [Pg 59] matches, the legs of stiff paper fastened to the bottom.

The children can make little paper parcels and boxes to put on the truck. A Sweep's Barrow. The figure 95 shows how the match-box is used.

A bundle of matches tied together represents part of the sweep's outfit. The broom is made from a roll of paper, the ends of which have been cut into a fringe.

The broom and matches can be darkened with crayons or ink. A Windmill Fig. Prepare the inside of a match-box as described in the case of the sentry-box, and place it inside its cover, securing it with a little gum.

Paste a piece of paper in front to hide the hollow. The sails of the windmill are made of brown paper, cut as in Fig. The whole can then be fastened to the box by a paper-clip.

To make the Sails turn. Bore two holes through the windmill; round a match stick by rubbing it with sand-paper; glue the sails to one end of it, pass it through the holes and glue a circle of cardboard to the other end to prevent it slipping back.

The paper is cut along the dark lines and bent back along the dotted lines. A Tram-car Fig. For this toy two insides of match-boxes are needed.

The children could cut and gum to one box a piece of cardboard A B. Then into this box are gummed six matches of the same length. While these are drying the wheels can be made and the top prepared.

The top is a box turned over with a piece of paper gummed round the edge. The paper should be coloured yellow. The projecting paper forms the rail round the top of the car.

When the matches are quite firm the inverted box is placed over them. A Church Fig. This is made from a combination of the barn or house and the castle.

A strip of paper can be gummed along both sides to keep the two parts together. A Match-box Train Fig. The engine is a match-box turned upside down, to which is gummed a cork covered with red or green paper.

The broad end of the cork has been sand-papered to make it more equal to the other end. The funnel is a piece of cardboard blackened and inserted into a slit in the cork.

Half a match-box glued to the cork forms the cab. The coal tender is a match-box on wheels; a piece of brown paper can be pasted [Pg 61] round one end to form the back and the sides.

The simplest way of making a carriage is to fold a piece of paper into three, mark on it the door and the windows and gum it to the inside of the box.

For this piece of paper the children can get the measurements from the match-box. In order to make a long carriage like a real train a child suggested gumming two match-boxes together, end to end.

For this purpose two or three match-box covers can be fastened together by covering them with white paper marked to represent the boards of a platform and gumming them to a piece of cardboard, A B C D.

The paper must be left long enough at each end to be gummed to the cardboard and form the slopes of the platform. The waiting-room or shelter is a match-box gummed to platform as in diagram, with a triangular piece of paper pasted behind to form a roof.

A seat can be pasted inside. The name of the station, signals, and a signal-box a half-opened match-box standing on end can be added.

A Railway Bridge. Gum two sets of four match-box covers together as A and B in Fig. Next, take a half-opened match-box C in Fig.

Fasten this to A by strips of paper gummed on each side see shaded part in Fig. B has a similar arrangement fastened to it. These portions form the two sides of the bridge, but the steps so obtained are too high and extra paper steps must be made.

L M equals width of match-box; M O equals three times thickness of box. Repeat for each intermediate step. Next cut a piece of cardboard the width of the match-box and long enough to leave a suitable distance between the two ends of the bridge to allow the match-box train to pass through, or two trains to pass each other.

Gum this to the top of A and B Fig. Next cut a piece of paper F G H J to fit across both parts of the bridge and to project to form railings or a wall, cut out the archway, colour to represent stones or bricks, and gum to bridge; cut and colour a similar piece for the other side Fig.

A Paddle-wheel Steamer Fig. The cover of a match-box, A B C D , is covered on top and bottom with two pieces of stiff paper or cardboard pointed at both ends Fig.

A long strip of paper is cut, E F G , etc. The box is gummed on to A B C D. The funnel is made of a roll of red paper Fig. The mast is a roll or strip of paper gummed to inside of box.

The wheels are strips of paper held together by a paper-fastener, [Pg 65] the paper being bent sideways. The paper-fastener clips the wheel to the side of the box.

A piece of cotton-wool can be put into the funnel for smoke. A Castle and Drawbridge Fig. A and B are match-boxes, with the shorter sides cut off, gummed to a square piece of cardboard 4-inch side.

Along the bottom of these a piece of blue paper is gummed to represent the water in the moat. C D F E is a piece of paper with archway cut out, gummed to sides of boxes A and B , and behind this are gummed match-box covers G and H.

The drawbridge is a piece of stiff paper hinged to C D , and has match sticks gummed across it. Holes are made in the bridge and wall through which pieces of thread are passed; the ends behind the drawbridge are fastened to a match.

K is a box turned upside down and gummed to G, H. L and M are covers forming a passage from drawbridge. The castle can be enlarged by adding more boxes.

This toy is made from two corks gummed together and fastened to the cover of a match-box which is gummed to a square of cardboard covered with blue paper.

Round the box, paper, cut and coloured to represent rocks, is pasted [Pg 66] and paper steps are fastened to one edge.

Into the top cork four pieces of matches are inserted and between them is placed a small roll of red paper. A small piece of paper with four holes in it is placed on top of the matches.

The corks can be coloured grey, and windows and doors painted on them. The top cork must be filed to fit the lower one, and its upper end filed to make it narrower.

An Airship Fig. The airship is made from three corks glued together, the thickest cork being in the middle. Matches are inserted at each end.

Four matches are inserted into the corks and their other ends glued into a match-box. A piece of black thread is fastened to the matches as shown in the diagram.

Matches and corks can be coloured dark grey. A Bristol Biplane Fig. A B, C D are two strips of paper, in length about four times the length of a match-box, in width nearly three-quarters the length of a match-box.

These are fastened together by match sticks, as shown in the diagram. E F is cut from a piece of paper as long as A B and about the width of a match-box.

This paper is doubled along E F and marked and cut out as in diagram Fig. A Bird-cage Fig. This is made of two small squares of cartridge paper fastened together by matches, as shown.

When making the holes the two pieces of paper should be placed together. A piece of cotton is fastened to the matches so that the cage may be hung up.

A bird for the cage is made from a small cork, as in Fig. The legs are two halves of a match; the tail must touch the ground in order that the bird may stand.

A Travelling Menagerie Fig. Cages are made from match-boxes. The box is mounted on wheels, match sticks are glued inside the box, and a piece of paper with holes in it is fitted to the tops of the matches.

Animals are cut out of paper and coloured. If these animals are cut from a folded piece of paper Fig. The various cages can be harnessed to horses.

A caravan to accompany the menagerie is shown in Fig. A piece of paper folded in three is gummed to the inside of a match-box. A Fire-escape Fig.

The ladder is made from two narrow strips of cardboard; holes are made in these and match sticks inserted.

The ends of the matches should be slightly filed or sand-papered. B is a match-box, one end, C , of which is bent forward.

Wheels can be gummed on as in the figure. L and M are cardboard strips gummed to box and ladder to help to keep it in position. Thread could be attached as shown in diagram, and an additional ladder made to stand between L and M.

A Mangle. A is a match-box turned upside down to which are gummed two corks which have been filed to make them perfect cylinders B and C in Fig. The two corks are gummed together and a strip of paper E is bent round them, gummed to their flat ends, and also to the sides of the match-box as at F.

K and H are pieces of cardboard shaped as in diagram and marked to imitate the iron legs of a mangle. These pieces are gummed to the inner sides of the match-box to form the legs.

G is a circle of cardboard on which spokes should be marked fastened as shown in diagram; to this a cardboard or match handle, L , is attached.

A Submarine Fig. A , B , C are corks filed to the shapes shown in Fig. E F is a piece of cardboard, narrow and pointed at each end, gummed to the corks.

Before fastening it on holes should be made in it round the edge. Through these small pins are put and pushed into the corks to form a railing, and round them a piece of black cotton is tied.

G is a small cork, or a part of a large cork made small by filing, gummed to E F ; a match, H , is inserted to represent the periscope.

Pins are inserted round G with black cotton tied round them. The corks, cardboard and matches should be coloured grey. Older children can make this submarine so that it will float.

The corks A , B , C must be fastened together by pieces of wire [Pg 70] passing through them. The deck is made by filing the corks flat along the top, E F , and pins are inserted around it.

Cork G is fastened to B by a pin. A narrow strip of lead is cut and pointed at each end, these ends are bent at right angles and are inserted into slits in A and B.

A Barrel Organ. A is a match-box cover, a cork; B , is made a perfect cylinder by means of sand-paper, and gummed to side of cover.

It is kept in its place by a piece of paper, C D E , which is gummed to cover and also to the cork. The handle K is made of a match stick and bent piece of cardboard.

Support H and handles are made of cardboard. Note that the piece of paper C D E reaches nearly to the ground. This prevents the toy from overbalancing.

Paper, etc. The match-box cover might have brown paper pasted round it. For these toys plenty of corks are necessary, and files or sand-paper; also some pointed instrument, a long nail or bradawl, for making holes in the corks.

Four of them are shown in Plate III. Horse and Cart. Gum wheels size of penny and matches for shafts on the match-box as in Fig. File or sand-paper a cork quite smooth and round the edges.

Cut a horse's head out of cardboard and colour it, make a slit with a knife in the widest part of the cork, insert the horse's head, insert the tail and four matches for legs.

Gum a piece of paper on the horse's back, turn up and gum the ends of a paper strip to form loops for shafts to go through.

These shafts can be gummed into the loops or fastened by thread or paper to a collar round the horse's neck. This latter way is difficult for little children.

The collar is cut out of paper. A piece of thread can be put through a hole in the horse's mouth for reins. Paper seats may be added to the cart.

A Coster's Donkey Barrow can be made in the same way, by substituting a donkey's head and cutting the box as in Fig. Russian Sledge.

To make the sledge cut two runners out of brown paper as A in Fig. Make two brown-paper seats, C , D , and gum on.

Cut part of the cover of a match-box as in Fig. Gum a brown-paper hood round this. A narrow strip of brown paper, E , is bent and fastened on as in diagram.

A match or piece of cane, F , is gummed in front of the box, and to this the horses are harnessed. The horses are made as already described.

A piece of silk or thread is looped round their necks and gummed under the straps of the outside horses, then tied to match stick, F.

A Reindeer Sledge Fig. Make the reindeer as the other animals. For the sledge the bottom of a match-box, A , and a piece of brown paper are needed.

The brown paper should be in length one and a half times the length of the match-box and broad enough to wrap round a match-box and cover every side except one narrow side.

Fold the paper in two along C B. Draw the runners on the doubled paper and cut out as in Fig. Do the [Pg 74] same on the other side; pieces M K F , etc.

A piece of brown paper forms the back, D Fig. Finally, a piece of paper just the size of the match-box can be pasted over A to make the sledge look tidy.

The Howdah on the elephant's back, the next model, is a simple one, though difficult for some little fingers. A is a little paper case, in which four halves of matches are glued, a square piece of paper with a little fringe cut round is gummed on the top Fig.

South African Trek waggon Fig. This is made from two match-box covers, A and B , fastened together by a strip of paper; two match-boxes, C and D , are gummed to the top; part of one box, D , is cut away as in the figure.

A strip of brown paper must [Pg 75] be gummed along A and B , and a piece along the bottom of boxes C and D ; the outsides of C and D may be left their ordinary blue colour.

A piece of bluish-grey paper, E , is folded in three and gummed inside the sides of boxes C and D , as in figure; three or four divisions should be pencilled on each paper side.

The wheels are cut out of cardboard—the large wheels should be somewhat larger than a penny, the small wheels a little smaller—these are gummed to the sides.

F is a strip of brown paper, through which a piece of thread passes to fasten the waggon to a stick, G , gummed across the oxen's backs; this can be fastened to a stick, H , and so on.

Five pairs of oxen should be yoked to the waggon in this way. An Irish Jaunting-car Fig. This toy is made from one match-box. First two cardboard wheels are cut out.

These are gummed on each side of the match-box cover as in Fig. The box is then cut in half Fig. Two pieces of brown paper are bent as in Fig. A piece of paper bent as in Fig.

A similar piece without the top, P , is gummed to the other end. Before putting on the seat the top may be covered with coloured paper, to represent the upholstered part of the car.

Shafts of cardboard or cane are cut out and gummed underneath the seat to the cover and a cork horse is harnessed to them. A Mexican Cart with Ox Team.

A match-box is cut as shown in Fig. Two pieces of narrow cardboard are cut the length of the box; holes are made in these and four matches are inserted in each.

These matches are then glued inside the sides of the box. The wheels are very large the diameter nearly equal to the length of the box ; they must be shaded to represent solid wood.

Two strips of cardboard, A and B , are gummed on as in the figure. A strip of brown paper gummed underneath the box forms the shaft, which can be gummed or tied to a match lying across the oxen, just behind their horns.

This match is tied to the horns; this is the correct way of harnessing oxen. A Donkey with Panniers. The panniers can be made of brown paper, in the same way as the mug described in Chapter IV; they are gummed to a strip of paper, which can be fastened to the donkey's back Fig.

A Persian Method of Travelling. The bottoms of the panniers, X and Y Fig. The hood is made of a piece of brown paper gummed inside the paper boxes X and Y.

The panniers can be gummed to a strip of paper, the middle of which is gummed to the donkey's back.

An Eskimo Sledge Fig. The sledge is made of a match-box turned upside down; one end, A , is bent back as in diagram; the other end, B , is cut in half, bent outward and shaped as in diagram.

A match, C , is glued to the ends, and to this is tied the thread that harnesses the dogs. A team consists of twelve dogs.

A Belgian Milk-cart Fig. Two pieces of cardboard, A , are gummed inside a match-box; cover the box with paper, colour it green and mark as in the figure.

Small corks should be filed to resemble milk cans. The carts generally contain six, three large and three small cans; they are yellow in colour.

Two pieces of cane, or two match sticks, D and C , are glued under the cart for shafts; the ends are slipped through pieces of looped [Pg 79] paper gummed to the backs of the dogs.

A piece of string tied to the ends of the shafts and round the dogs fastens them to the cart. The dogs are grey, and one is often smaller than the other.

Russian Dog Sledge Fig. This is made from a piece of paper folded along C D Fig. When opened out the sledge appears as in Fig. Runners A B and E F are fastened together by strips of paper.

A seat may be gummed over G and H. A piece of thread attached as in the figure harnesses the sledge to five dogs, made of corks.

Cork Boats. Besides the submarine described in Chapter VI, many other boats can be made from corks, all of which will float well.

The corks are joined together by pieces of wire passing through the middle. The keel is made more secure by driving pins or thin nails through the lead and the corks.

The keel also helps to hold the corks firmly together and prevents them from slipping round on the connecting wire. A Steamer Fig. Select three corks, as uniform in size as possible.

Cut and file part of their round surface quite flat as in Fig. Shape the bow and stern. The funnels are made of two small corks, fastened by pins.

The masts consist of pieces of cane or thin sticks. A Sailing-boat. A very pretty little sailing-boat can be made, as in Fig. The sails are of glazed lining.

The edges of this do not fray, so the sails do not require hemming, and as they must be as light as possible, this is a great advantage. The gaff, A , is tied with thread to the mast, also the boom, B ; both are pieces of cane, to which the mainsail, D , is sewn.

The end of the boom is tied by cotton to a piece of wire at the stern, shaped as in Fig. Care must be taken that the lead keel is exactly in the middle, and that the sails and masts are not too heavy, otherwise the boat will blow over on its side.

A Paddle-boat. Two pieces of cork pinned on each side of the steamer and cut as in Fig. Other models, such as a dreadnought, a fishing smack, etc.

A Flying Proa of the Ladrones Fig. These boats are used chiefly in East Indian waters. They are remarkable for their [Pg 82] speed.

Bow and stern are equally sharp pointed. One side of the proa is flat, and in a straight line from bow to stern Fig.

The outrigger prevents the boat from turning over. In the model the outrigger is made of a cork fastened to the side of the boat by match sticks or pieces of cane.

An Eskimo Canoe is very easily made by pointing the ends very sharply and hollowing out a hole in the centre Fig. For this boat it is better to use four corks, as two sails are carried.

In the Double Canoe Fig. A slanting hole is drilled in A for the mast. Mast and yards are best made of cane. These little boats look wonderfully effective on the water.

Cork Wrestlers Fig. This is a very amusing toy and is very easily made. Cut and file two corks to the shape shown in Fig.

Drill a hole through the shoulders a a and hips b b , and flatten these for the limbs to work against. The arms and legs are made of cardboard.

Cut out the legs as in Fig. Pass a piece of stout wire through the hips and the holes in the legs and double the ends over, so that the legs will not slip off, but let them be loose enough to move freely.

In shaping the legs make them bend slightly at the knee, as this makes the figures more life-like in their movements. The arms must be cut out in pairs as in Fig.

Make holes near the shoulders and one at c. Then fasten the arms to the body in the same way as the legs.

The heads are made of cork, the eyes, mouth, etc. Cut a slit across the neck and one across the top of the body.

Fasten the head to the body by inserting, with the [Pg 84] help of a pen-knife, a strip of calico into both these slits, so that the head is fairly close to the body Fig.

The heads will move about as the figures wrestle. Paint the legs and arms. Pass a piece of thread through the holes c.

Hold one end of the thread steady and move the other about and you will cause the little figures to wrestle in a most life-like manner.

If it is necessary to make the figures heavier, little pieces of lead may be glued to the feet. Similar little wrestlers Fig. Cut the pegs in two along the dotted line.

The upper part forms the head and body of a wrestler, and the lower parts are used for the legs. Drill holes through the bodies at A in Fig. For the arms two pieces of thin, flat wood are necessary, about 3 inches in length.

Bore holes at each end and in the middle, shape them roughly with a pen-knife to represent the joined hands of the wrestlers.

Fix these pieces to the bodies and work them as described in the case of the cork wrestlers. Swiss Musical Figures.

These amusing little toys were first invented by the Swiss. They are not musical in the sense that they produce any sound, but they dance about to music [Pg 85] when placed on a piano lid, or on any flat surface which vibrates.

Shape a cork as in Fig. Cut out arms and legs of thin cardboard. Fasten the legs to a piece of wire passing through the hollow in the cork B C in Fig.

Fasten the arms to the shoulders with wire. Make four tiny holes in the bottom rim, E , with a pin; get some stiff bristles from an old clothes brush , glue them into the holes and when firm cut them level, so that the figure stands upright, with the feet a little above the ground.

A head is then made of cork, and a little dress and bonnet of paper added. This little figure, resting on the bristles, is affected by the slightest vibration.

Other figures, such as a soldier, a clown, or animals, such as a dancing bear or a monkey, can be made on the same principle.

An interesting series of ships can be made of cardboard and paper. These ships can be used to illustrate the history lesson or to illustrate a lesson on the evolution of the ship.

Cardboard of medium thickness thin cardboard will bend and thick is difficult to cut , white paper—cartridge paper or ordinary exercise paper—and coloured paper or chalks, scissors and pen-knife, ruler.

Ihr verletzt ja die Vorschriften. Das ist nicht gestattet. Er trat an die Linde heran. Und ich habe keinen Drachen mehr stei- gen lassen, seit ich ein kleiner Junge war!

Ooh, das tut mir aber leid! Versuchen Sie's bitte mi t einer anderen Frage, Professor. Ich bin sicher, diesmal gebe ich die richtige Antwort.

Hm, hm, warten Sie mal! Verraten Sie's nicht, es liegt mir schon auf der Zunge. Dreizehn Aber, mein lieber Herr!

Es gibt doch sicherlich nicht zwe i Dreizehnen? Gibt es denn mehr als eine Dreizehn? Tut mir leid Mir gefiel sein Gesicht so gut. Ich werde nie gescheit werden!

Hallo wer bist du? Wenn's darum geht wer bist denn du? Wi e interessant! Ich freue mich sehr, dich kennenzulernen. Warum sollte ich?

Das geht sehr wohl! Nun gut. Gib dem Mann eine Schellenkappe; er soll mein Narr sein! Ein Narr! Geh du voran!

Nein, bitte du! Dann also beide zugleich! Und ich der Hanswurst, dein Genoss'! Ist das das einzige Lied, das du kennst?

Kennst du noch andere? Flieg, Bienlein, flieg, Damit ich Honig krieg. Wer ist das wohl? Warte mal!

Mir ist grad noch was anderes eingefallen. Ich denke, das ist besser. So esse ich sie gern! Es wird immer schlimmer mi t ihm Was machen wir nur?

Vielleicht kann der uns helfen! Glaubst du, er hat sein Wissen in der kleinen schwarzen Tasche mit? Ist das wichtig? Genaugenommen ist es das nicht.

Wi e tief ist das Meer? Tief genug, um ein Schiff zu tragen. Ein Stein ist ein Stern, der nicht strahlt. Was ist das Beste in der Welt?

Nichts tun Oje, oje! Der da Ha! Dich kenne ich. Schon an der Schellenkappe erkenne ich den Hanswurst!

Sehr wahr Und wa s noch? Die Erde dreht sich, Ohne zu kippen. Das stimmt Noch etwas? Erdbeeren und Bier! Gebt dem den Preis! Ich will ihn nicht haben.

Wa s soll ich damit? Wohin gehst du? Ach, irgendwohin, irgendwohin! Wart auf mich, war t auf mich! W a s tust du nur?

Keineswegs, meine Liebe!

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